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Synergistic effect of laser irradiation and cinnamic acid as a functional food on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially type 2, is increasing worldwide. Prevention, control and management of this chronic metabolic disease is the most important ways to avoid its consequences. The use of functional foods and bioactive compounds can be effective in preventing and controlling this disease due to the antioxidant compounds present. Low- level laser therapy (LLLT), as an adjunct therapy, along with medication can be effective in reducing the effects of DM.

Objective: Our aim in the present study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LLLT and cinnamic acid on blood glucose, inflammatory factors, oxidative factors, and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Methods: For this study, thirty healthy individuals were selected as the control group and thirty individuals with type 2 DM were selected. The levels of biochemical parameters, such as glucose, hydrogen peroxide, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) were studied in the samples of different control and diabetic groups, Inflammatory factors, such as Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also studied.

Results: The results of all biochemical parameters showed significant differences in untreated and treated diabetic samples in compared to control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the reduction of inflammatory factors, glucose and hydrogen peroxide between the samples treated with both cinnamic acid and laser irradiation with the untreated diabetic sample (P > 0.05). A significant difference was observed in comparing the results of other biochemical factors (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Concomitant use of cinnamic acid and LLLT as a complementary treatment can reduce oxidative stress and thus prevent the diabetes complications.

Keywords: Laser irradiation; Cinnamic acid; Functional foods; Oxidative stress; Diabetes mellitus.