Views:94 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-08-21 Origin:Site
Cinnamaldehyde, also known as cinnamic aldehyde, 3-phenylpropenal or 3-phenylprop-2-enaldehyde, is an aldehyde organic compound that exists in essential oils such as cinnamon oil, rose oil, and patchouli oil. The molecular formula is C9H8O, under normal pressure, melting point is -8℃, boiling point is 253℃, and it exists in liquid form. Cinnamic aldehyde has two isomers, cis and trans, and natural cinnamaldehyde is in trans. Cinnamaldehyde has a strong and long lasting fragrance of cinnamon oil, has the characteristics of antibacterial, anti-mildew, dilation of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. It is widely used in the fields of medicine and food industry.
01 - The Physiological Functions of Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde has the effect of lowering blood sugar and blood lipids, and can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Intake of cinnamaldehyde can increase the body's utilization of glucose and esters, and achieve the purpose of lowering blood sugar and blood lipids. Studies have shown that after taking cinnamaldehyde in patients with type 2 diabetes, their fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein content are significantly reduced. Cinnamaldehyde can be used for the treatment of cell fibrosis. Studies have shown that cinnamaldehyde can inhibit the proliferation and hypertrophy of renal interstitial fibroblasts and the synthesis and secretion of intercellular collagen caused by high glucose. Some studies have shown that cinnamaldehyde can resist gastrointestinal ulcers by inhibiting the erosion of gastric mucosa by pepsin and increasing the blood flow rate of gastric mucosa; it can mildly stimulate the intestines and stomach, promote the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, enhance digestive function, promote appetite, and relieve gastrointestinal tract Smooth muscle spasm, relieve intestinal spasm pain.
02 - Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamic aldehyde has a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. Cinnamaldehyde can increase the active oxygen content in certain bacteria, cause oxidative damage to them, and cause their death. There is bacterial membrane on the surface. Although the accumulation of reactive oxygen species has not been detected in the body, its growth and metabolism are also affected.
Cinnamaldehyde can inhibit the growth of bacteria by destroying the structure and normal metabolism of bacteria. Cinnamaldehyde contains aldehyde groups, has a certain degree of hydrophilicity, and is easily adsorbed on the hydrophilic groups on the surface of fungi. It has a certain inhibitory effect on the activities of chitin synthase and glucan synthase on the cell membrane, thereby inhibiting the cell wall The production of chitin and glucose in the cell wall destroys the polysaccharide structure of the cell wall and inhibits the growth of bacteria; it can also dissolve between the adjacent fatty acyl chains of the hydrophobic domain of the cell membrane to enhance the permeability of the cell membrane, leading to ATP leakage and bacterial death.
Cinnamaldehyde can inhibit the growth of bacteria by affecting the normal expression of DNA or RNA in cells. Cinnamaldehyde can block the expression of the key gene FKS, resulting in the inhibition of the synthesis of polysaccharides in the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus, thereby inhibiting the growth of mold.
Cinnamaldehyde can inhibit the growth of bacteria by blocking the metabolism of bacteria. The functional group of cinnamaldehyde, the aldehyde group can chemically react with the functional groups of the protein in the cell, such as amino, carboxyl, etc., thereby inhibiting the activity of the enzyme or even inactivating the enzyme.
03 - Metabolism of Cinnamaldehyde
There are many metabolic pathways of cinnamaldehyde, which can be oxidized to cinnamic acid by NAD-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase, and combined with other salts to be excreted; it can also be further β-oxidized or reacted with reduced glutathione The formation of thioether acid derivatives, and then combined with other compounds, and finally eliminated from the body, there are very few residues in the human body.
04 - Application of Cinnamaldehyde in Food
Because of its good antibacterial effect, cinnamaldehyde is widely used in food preservation. The main usage methods are: fumigation, film formation, emulsion treatment. All indicators show that the cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment can effectively maintain the quality of shiitake mushrooms and play a good fresh-keeping effect.
Cinnamaldehyde has a strong and lasting special fragrance of cinnamon oil, and is often used in food additives. Adding trace amounts of cinnamon oil to Chinese soup, coffee, biscuits and baked goods can increase the flavor of the food. Adding cinnamaldehyde to chewing gum can increase the flavor of the chewing gum itself, mask bad breath and remove some oral bacteria.
05 - Prospect
Because of its excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial properties and special aromatic odor, cinnamaldehyde plays a dual role of preservation and preservation and improving flavor and taste in the food industry. Cinnamaldehyde is metabolized quickly in the human body and has little residue. It is recognized as a safe and non-toxic food flavor by the American Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), and is recognized as a safe and non-toxic by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Of the substance. In China, cinnamaldehyde is also recognized as a synthetic spice for food, which can be used in meat, candy, chewing gum, condiments, etc. However, cinnamaldehyde has poor water solubility, strong volatility, and strong fragrance, which can easily affect the original flavor of food, thus limiting its application in food preservation and preservation. Some derivatives of cinnamaldehyde have similar properties to cinnamaldehyde. For example, cinnamon bark has a lighter fragrance and has antibacterial properties; studies have shown that cinnamaldehyde microemulsion can solve the problem of poor water solubility and has a good antibacterial effect. Further research and development of cinnamaldehyde derivatives and related products such as microemulsions can better expand the application range of cinnamaldehyde.